2014-05-24 05:48:26 -07:00

122 lines
3.4 KiB

Ophis permits a reasonably rich set of arithmetic operations to be
done at assemble time. So far, all of our arguments and values
have either been constants or label names. In this chapter, we
will modify the <literal>print</literal> macro so that it calls a
subroutine to do the actual printing. This will shrink the final
code size a fair bit.
Here's our printing routine. It's fairly straightforward.
; PRINTSTR routine. Accumulator stores the low byte of the address,
; X register stores the high byte. Destroys the values of $10 and
; $11.
sta $10
stx $11
ldy #$00
_lp: lda ($10), y
beq _done
jsr chrout
bne _lp
_done: rts
However, now we are faced with the problem of what to do with
the <literal>print</literal> macro. We need to take a 16-bit
value and store it in two 8-bit registers. We can use
the <literal>&lt;</literal> and <literal>&gt;</literal> operators
to take the low or high byte of a word, respectively.
The <literal>print</literal> macro becomes:
.macro print
lda #&lt;_1
ldx #&gt;_1
jsr printstr
Also, since BASIC uses the locations $10 and $11, we should really
cache them at the start of the program and restore them at the
.org $C000
.space cache 2
; Save the zero page locations that printstr uses.
lda $10
sta cache
lda $11
sta cache+1
; ... main program goes here ...
; Restore the zero page values printstr uses.
lda cache
sta $10
lda cache+1
sta $11
Note that we only have to name <literal>cache</literal> once, but
can use addition to refer to any offset from it.<footnote><para>We
could spare ourselves some trouble here and use $fb instead of
$10, which BASIC does <emphasis>not</emphasis> use, but the
example is more thorough this way.</para></footnote>
Ophis supports following operations, with the following precedence
levels (higher entries bind more tightly):
<table frame="all">
<title>Ophis Operators</title>
<tgroup cols='2'>
<entry align="center">Operators</entry>
<entry align="center">Description</entry>
<row><entry><literal>[ ]</literal></entry><entry>Parenthesized expressions</entry></row>
<row><entry><literal>&lt; &gt;</literal></entry><entry>Byte selection (low, high)</entry></row>
<row><entry><literal>* /</literal></entry><entry>Multiply, divide</entry></row>
<row><entry><literal>+ -</literal></entry><entry>Add, subtract</entry></row>
<row><entry><literal>| &amp; ^</literal></entry><entry>Bitwise OR, AND, XOR</entry></row>
Note that brackets, not parentheses, are used to group arithmetic
operations. This is because parentheses are used for the indirect
addressing modes, and it makes parsing much easier.
The code for this version of the code is
in <xref linkend="tutor6-src" endterm="tutor6-fname">.