initial import

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Sean 2017-08-21 11:12:33 -07:00
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*.map
*.swp
songs/

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Copyright (c) 2017, Sean Kasun
All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this
list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS"
AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF
THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

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TS = src/es5503.ts src/handle.ts
SSTS = src/smith.ts src/player.ts
FTATS = src/fta.ts src/ftaplayer.ts
.DELETE_ON_ERROR:
all: smith.js fta.js
smith.js: $(TS) $(SSTS)
tsc
fta.js: $(TS) $(FTATS)
tsc -p tsconfig_fta.json
check:
tslint $(TS) $(FTATS) $(SSTS)
clean:
rm -f smith.js fta.js

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# Javascript Soundsmith Player
Soundsmith was a music program released in the late 80s for the Apple IIgs. It
was used by many games and demos for their music. This is an implementation of
the Soundsmith player written in Typescript.
You can check out a live demo [here](https://seancode.com/soundsmith).
`src/` contains the sourcecode for the player.
`extract/` contains a bunch of commandline tools I wrote to help extract music
from demos and other software.
`docs/` contains documentation on how Soundsmith works, as well as documentation
on how I extracted music from the trickier sources.
I've also included a second special music player that can play older FTA music, like the
sort found in the Nucleus demo.

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<h1>Extracting music from Modulae</h1>
</div>
<div id="content">
<div id="preamble">
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>This is a walkthrough for how I located and extracted the music from FTA&#8217;s
Modulae demo, straight from the 2mg disk image.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>We&#8217;ll begin by disassembling the boot block. The boot block is the first
block on disk, and is always loaded into <code>$0800</code>.</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 3.1.8
by Lorenzo Bettini
http://www.lorenzobettini.it
http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
<pre><tt><span style="color: #990000">.</span>/disasm modulae<span style="color: #990000">.</span>2mg <span style="color: #993399">800</span> <span style="color: #993399">0</span> <span style="color: #993399">1</span> <span style="color: #990000">&gt;</span> boot<span style="color: #990000">.</span>s</tt></pre></div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>This command says to extract one 512-byte block starting at block 0, into memory
location <code>$800</code> and disassemble it.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>If we analyze the disassembled boot block, we will see that the function at
<code>$08f9</code> loads a block from disk. Following that backward, we discover that
at <code>$08c9</code>, it loads blocks 7&#8212;13 into RAM starting at <code>$9400</code>. Then it
calls a function at <code>$0a00</code> and passes it the address of the RAM it just loaded.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Blocks 7&#8212;13 contain the main loader, it&#8217;s a routine responsible for
loading the rest of the disk into various parts of RAM. The call to
<code>$0a00</code> decrunches the loader. To help with that, I built a tool that can
properly decrunch those blocks.</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 3.1.8
by Lorenzo Bettini
http://www.lorenzobettini.it
http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
<pre><tt><span style="color: #990000">.</span>/decrunch modulae<span style="color: #990000">.</span>2mg <span style="color: #993399">7</span> <span style="color: #993399">6</span> loader</tt></pre></div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>This basically extracts 6 blocks from the disk image, starting at block 7. It
decrunches them, and saves the result into a file called <code>loader</code>.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Now we can disassemble the loader.</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 3.1.8
by Lorenzo Bettini
http://www.lorenzobettini.it
http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
<pre><tt><span style="color: #990000">.</span>/disasm loader <span style="color: #993399">9400</span> <span style="color: #990000">&gt;</span> loader<span style="color: #990000">.</span>s</tt></pre></div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The <code>disasm</code> command will disassemble the entire file if the offset and size
arguements are omitted. It also will work on a byte-level if the file passed
isn&#8217;t a 2mg disk image.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>We remember from the previous disassembly that these blocks should be
loaded into RAM at <code>$9400</code>, so we pass that address to <code>disasm</code>.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Now we inspect the loader disassembly. After a bit of inspection, we can
see that the main loading is done at <code>$9ad6</code>. It uses a table of addresses
located at <code>$9bad</code> to determine which blocks to load and where in RAM to put
them. It then later runs the decruncher (still at <code>$0a00</code>) on various blocks
of RAM.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>This table is the thing we care about. The first word is the starting
block on disk, which is followed by a bunch of 8-byte records. The first
dword of each record is the target address, the second dword is the number
of 256-byte pages to load. It loads these sequentially from the disk,
beginning at the starting block. It ends when a record is 0 pages long.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>I built a <code>dumptbl</code> tool that makes it easier to parse this table into
human readable format, telling us which blocks to load and where. We can
then choose to inspect the various blocks, one by one and determine which
ones we care about.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The table we want to dump is at <code>$9bad</code>, we need to calculate that
position relative to the start of the file to determine its disk offset.</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>$9bad - $9400 = $07ad</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Thus, we call <code>dumptbl</code> with the following:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 3.1.8
by Lorenzo Bettini
http://www.lorenzobettini.it
http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
<pre><tt><span style="color: #990000">.</span>/dumptbl loader 7ad</tt></pre></div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>(Note how we pass <code>loader</code> which is the unpacked binary, and not
<code>loader.s</code> which is the disassembly).</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Using this table, we can inspect various blocks.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The very first entry in the table is actually interesting. It consists of
58 blocks, starting at block 16 on disk, uncrunched. If we look at this
data, it&#8217;s actually the &#8220;And now, FTA Presents&#8230;&#8221; raw audio data.
It&#8217;s stored as an unsigned 8-bit PCM data. It&#8217;s in mono, and should
be played back at 11,025 Hz. I went ahead and slapped a <code>.wav</code> header
onto the audio data to save it for posterity. You&#8217;ll find it in the
songs/modulae folder.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>I also found a music player. Starting at block 801, 27 blocks are loaded
into <code>$1000</code>.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The music player uses a wavebank loaded into <code>$9:0000</code>, and music data at
<code>$a:0400</code>. Sure enough, we can find those blocks in the table used by the main
loader. The music data is crunched, the sound data isn&#8217;t.</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 3.1.8
by Lorenzo Bettini
http://www.lorenzobettini.it
http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
<pre><tt><span style="color: #990000">.</span>/decrunch modulae<span style="color: #990000">.</span>2mg <span style="color: #993399">828</span> <span style="color: #993399">130</span> intro<span style="color: #990000">.</span>wb raw
<span style="color: #990000">.</span>/decrunch modulae<span style="color: #990000">.</span>2mg <span style="color: #993399">958</span> <span style="color: #993399">5</span> intro<span style="color: #990000">.</span>song</tt></pre></div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Now, there should technically be two different music files in Modulae. One
for the intro, and the other for the main demo. The music player doesn&#8217;t
seem to reference them, so I&#8217;m guessing a <strong>second</strong> music player is actually loaded
at another point. Instead of hunting for it, I decide to check the entries
of the main loader. Sure enough, I find another song and wavebank.</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 3.1.8
by Lorenzo Bettini
http://www.lorenzobettini.it
http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
<pre><tt><span style="color: #990000">.</span>/decrunch modulae<span style="color: #990000">.</span>2mg <span style="color: #993399">189</span> <span style="color: #993399">133</span> demo<span style="color: #990000">.</span>wb raw
<span style="color: #990000">.</span>/decrunch modulae<span style="color: #990000">.</span>2mg <span style="color: #993399">162</span> <span style="color: #993399">27</span> demo<span style="color: #990000">.</span>song</tt></pre></div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>And thus we have both songs extracted. The final step is to trim off the
excess padding. Since the songs are padded to block boundaries, they have
useless extra padding at the end. <code>trimwb</code> and <code>trimmusic</code> will calculate the
proper length of the wavebank and song files and output trimmed down versions.</p></div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div id="footnotes"><hr /></div>
<div id="footer">
<div id="footer-text">
Last updated
2017-08-21 10:48:15 MST
</div>
</div>
</body>
</html>

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Extracting music from Modulae
=============================
This is a walkthrough for how I located and extracted the music from FTA's
Modulae demo, straight from the 2mg disk image.
We'll begin by disassembling the boot block. The boot block is the first
block on disk, and is always loaded into `$0800`.
[source,shell]
----
./disasm modulae.2mg 800 0 1 > boot.s
----
This command says to extract one 512-byte block starting at block 0, into memory
location `$800` and disassemble it.
If we analyze the disassembled boot block, we will see that the function at
`$08f9` loads a block from disk. Following that backward, we discover that
at `$08c9`, it loads blocks 7--13 into RAM starting at `$9400`. Then it
calls a function at `$0a00` and passes it the address of the RAM it just loaded.
Blocks 7--13 contain the main loader, it's a routine responsible for
loading the rest of the disk into various parts of RAM. The call to
`$0a00` decrunches the loader. To help with that, I built a tool that can
properly decrunch those blocks.
[source,shell]
----
./decrunch modulae.2mg 7 6 loader
----
This basically extracts 6 blocks from the disk image, starting at block 7. It
decrunches them, and saves the result into a file called `loader`.
Now we can disassemble the loader.
[source,shell]
----
./disasm loader 9400 > loader.s
----
The `disasm` command will disassemble the entire file if the offset and size
arguements are omitted. It also will work on a byte-level if the file passed
isn't a 2mg disk image.
We remember from the previous disassembly that these blocks should be
loaded into RAM at `$9400`, so we pass that address to `disasm`.
Now we inspect the loader disassembly. After a bit of inspection, we can
see that the main loading is done at `$9ad6`. It uses a table of addresses
located at `$9bad` to determine which blocks to load and where in RAM to put
them. It then later runs the decruncher (still at `$0a00`) on various blocks
of RAM.
This table is the thing we care about. The first word is the starting
block on disk, which is followed by a bunch of 8-byte records. The first
dword of each record is the target address, the second dword is the number
of 256-byte pages to load. It loads these sequentially from the disk,
beginning at the starting block. It ends when a record is 0 pages long.
I built a `dumptbl` tool that makes it easier to parse this table into
human readable format, telling us which blocks to load and where. We can
then choose to inspect the various blocks, one by one and determine which
ones we care about.
The table we want to dump is at `$9bad`, we need to calculate that
position relative to the start of the file to determine its disk offset.
----
$9bad - $9400 = $07ad
----
Thus, we call `dumptbl` with the following:
[source,shell]
----
./dumptbl loader 7ad
----
(Note how we pass `loader` which is the unpacked binary, and not
`loader.s` which is the disassembly).
Using this table, we can inspect various blocks.
The very first entry in the table is actually interesting. It consists of
58 blocks, starting at block 16 on disk, uncrunched. If we look at this
data, it's actually the ``And now, FTA Presents...'' raw audio data.
It's stored as an unsigned 8-bit PCM data. It's in mono, and should
be played back at 11,025 Hz. I went ahead and slapped a `.wav` header
onto the audio data to save it for posterity. You'll find it in the
songs/modulae folder.
I also found a music player. Starting at block 801, 27 blocks are loaded
into `$1000`.
The music player uses a wavebank loaded into `$9:0000`, and music data at
`$a:0400`. Sure enough, we can find those blocks in the table used by the main
loader. The music data is crunched, the sound data isn't.
[source,shell]
----
./decrunch modulae.2mg 828 130 intro.wb raw
./decrunch modulae.2mg 958 5 intro.song
----
Now, there should technically be two different music files in Modulae. One
for the intro, and the other for the main demo. The music player doesn't
seem to reference them, so I'm guessing a *second* music player is actually loaded
at another point. Instead of hunting for it, I decide to check the entries
of the main loader. Sure enough, I find another song and wavebank.
[source,shell]
----
./decrunch modulae.2mg 189 133 demo.wb raw
./decrunch modulae.2mg 162 27 demo.song
----
And thus we have both songs extracted. The final step is to trim off the
excess padding. Since the songs are padded to block boundaries, they have
useless extra padding at the end. `trimwb` and `trimmusic` will calculate the
proper length of the wavebank and song files and output trimmed down versions.

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</head>
<body class="article">
<div id="header">
<h1>Nucleus Demo</h1>
</div>
<div id="content">
<div id="preamble">
<div class="sectionbody">