a verification and copy program for 5.25-inch Apple II floppy disks
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a verification and copy program for 5.25-inch Apple II floppy disks

Minimum system requirements:

  • Apple //e, //c, IIgs, or ][+ with 64K
  • Two 5.25-inch disk drives(*)

(*) fully compatible with floppy drive emulators like CFFA3000 and FloppyEMU.

Some fun facts about copy protection

  1. Many companies, especially smaller ones, outsourced their protection. I have seen byte-for-byte identical copy protection on disks from seven different companies!

  2. Even companies that wrote their own copy protection would try to re-use it on multiple disks to get the most "bang for the buck."

  3. Not everything has been cracked! Because there was so much piracy in the 1980s, some people assume that everything ever published has been cracked, digitized, and preserved in an emulator-friendly format. In reality, there are hundreds of disks that have never been cracked. Thirty years later, these programs are still trapped on physical media, literally rotting away.


Using Passport is simple. After running the program, put an original disk in slot 6, drive 1 and a blank formatted disk in any other drive. If necessary, press S to cycle through your drives. Then press C to start the cracking.

If all goes well, Passport will read your original disk and write a copy in a standard format, then remove any protection checks from the copy. The copy will boot and run just as well as the original disk, but it will be copyable with COPYA or any full-disk copy program.

If all does not go well, Passport will tell you where it all went wrong.

During the process, you can press any key to cancel immediately.

If you have a two-sided disk where only one side is bootable, after the first side completes, you can press 2 to reuse the captured RWTS on the second side.

If Passport stops because of read errors but you suspect the errors are due to physical damage (as opposed to just copy protection), you can retry the process ignoring errors by pressing Ctrl-R. The resulting copy may or may not be usable.

In any case, Passport will NEVER write to or alter your original disk in any way. And neither should you! Don't reduce the number of original disks in the world; they aren't making any more of them.

Supported protections

Passport targets common protection schemes that were reused by multiple companies. These types of protection were common in educational software.

  • Abracadata e.g. Design Your Own Home series

  • Allyn and Bacon e.g. CAAT Skill Tester series

  • American Guidance Service e.g. SocMate Analogies Games

  • Apple "Special Delivery" e.g. Ernie's Quiz, Instant Zoo

  • ArtSci e.g. AceCalc, Magicalc

  • Blue Chip Software e.g. Squire, Baron, Tycoon

  • BrainBank e.g. BackAid

  • Davidson & Associates e.g. Math Blaster Plus, Read N Roll

  • DC Heath e.g. What Makes A Dinosaur Sore, Buzz Bang Harvey

  • DesignWare e.g. Spellicopter, Crypto Cube

  • Developmental Learning Materials e.g. Curious George in Outer Space, Alien Addition

  • Didatech Software e.g. Crosscountry USA, Crosscountry Canada

  • Edu-Ware e.g. Decimals, Algebra 2

  • Ellen Nelson Learning Library e.g. Science (series), House-a-fire!

  • EME e.g. Metric System Tutor, Water in the Air, Complex Circuits

  • Encyclopaedia Britannica e.g. Problem Solving in Algebra, Math Skills: Elementary Level

  • Enlightenment e.g. Paul Whitehead Teaches Chess, Living Chess Library

  • Focus Media e.g. The Time Tunnel (series), Travels with Za-Zoom

  • Gamco Publishing e.g. Math Leap Frog, Math Football

  • Grolier Publishing e.g. NoteCard Maker, EduCalc

  • Hartley Courseware e.g. Chariots, Cougars, and Kings; Tim and the Cat and the Big Red Hat

  • Hayden Software e.g. SAT Score Improvement System, Microscopic Journey

  • Heartsoft e.g. Electric Chalkboard, Tommy the Time-Telling Turtle

  • Hoffman e.g. Good Thinking! series

  • Houghton-Mifflin e.g. Game Frame One, Math Masters

  • HRM Software e.g. Gene Machine, Heredity Dog

  • Josten Learning Systems e.g. Building Reading Skills, Explorations in Science

  • Krell Software e.g. Time Traveler, College Boards

  • Laureate Learning Systems e.g. Concentrate on Words & Concepts

  • The Learning Company e.g. Bumble Games, Gertrude's Secrets

  • Learning Multi-Systems e.g. Solar Reading

  • Learning Technologies e.g. Animal Hotel, Bike Hike

  • McCarthy-McCormack e.g. Vowel Corral, Library Magic

  • Marshware e.g. Squeegee Learns About Drugs

  • Mastery Development e.g. Mastery Arithmetic Games

  • MECC e.g. Word Munchers, Clock Works

  • Media Basics e.g. Return to Reading (series)

  • Methods & Solutions e.g. Fantasy Land, Behind The Wheel

  • Micrograms Publishing e.g. Wild West Math, Granny Applebee's Cookie Factory

  • Millennium Group e.g. The Brain Game, Concentration

  • Milliken Publishing e.g. Math Sequences

  • MindPlay e.g. Fraction-oids, Dyno-Quest

  • Mindscape e.g. The Halley Project, Paperboy

  • MUSE e.g. RobotWar, Caverns of Freitag

  • National Geographic Society e.g. The Botanist's Apprentice

  • Neosoft e.g. Comparison Kitchen, Animal Photo Fun

  • Optimum Resource e.g. Stickybear Math, Car Builder

  • PDI e.g. Leadsheeter, Polywriter

  • Pelican Software e.g. Dino Days, Graphics Converter

  • Phoenix Software e.g. Zoom Grafix

  • Polarware e.g. The Electric Crayon (series), The Spy's Adventures (series)

  • Quest Learning Systems e.g. Bingo Bugglebee Presents Home Alone, Outdoor Safety

  • Queue e.g. Force and Motion, Practical Grammar

  • Random House e.g. Snoopy to the Rescue, Charlie Brown's ABCs

  • Reader's Digest e.g. Key Lingo, Cogito

  • Scholastic e.g. Math Shop, Microzine

  • Science Research Associates e.g. Computer Drill and Instruction

  • Scott, Foresman and Company e.g. Addition and Subtraction 4, Decimals 3, Dinosaurs and Squids

  • Silicon Valley Systems e.g. Rapid Reader, E-Z Learner

  • Softsmith e.g. Astro Attack, Dinner on a Disk

  • Software Publishing Corporation e.g. PFS File, PFS Graph, PFS Write

  • Spinnaker Software e.g. Snooper Troops, KidWriter

  • Springboard Software e.g. Early Games for Young Children, Puzzle Master, Mask Parade

  • Sunburst Communications e.g. M-ss-ng L-nks, The Incredible Laboratory

  • Thunder Mountain e.g. Pathwords, Quink

  • Troll Associates e.g. Dino Dig, Make A Face

  • Unicorn Software e.g. Magical Myths, Ten Little Robots

  • Woodbury Software e.g. PlayWriter (series)

Passport can also recognize and defeat the copy protection used by some game companies. In general there was more variation and "one-off" protection in games than in educational software, so your mileage may vary.

  • Accolade e.g. Hardball, Law of the West

  • Activision (patcher by TRex) e.g. Hacker, Rampage

  • Adventure International e.g. Adventureland, Strange Odyssey

  • Atari e.g. Defender, Gremlins

  • Baudville e.g. Blazing Paddles, Take 1

  • Border e.g. Arena, Early Bird

  • Broderbund e.g. Where in Time Is Carmen Sandiego, Choplifter

  • Coastal e.g. The Chalice of Mostania

  • Dakin-5 e.g. MIRV, Rings of Saturn

  • Datasoft e.g. Canyon Climber, Fathoms 40

  • Data East e.g. Ikari Warriors, Batman

  • Earthware e.g. Black Belt, Zoo Master

  • Electronic Arts (patcher by qkumba) e.g. The Bard's Tale, Skyfox

  • Epyx e.g. Summer Games, Deathsword

  • Gebelli e.g. Horizon V, Russki Duck

  • HAL Labs e.g. Sheila, Super Taxman II

  • Infocom e.g. Planetfall, Zork I/II/III

  • Interplay e.g. Borrowed Time, Tracer Sanction

  • Leisure Genius e.g. Clue Master Detective, RISK

  • MicroFun e.g. Crown of Arthain, Miner 2049er

  • Origin Systems e.g. Ultima V, Times of Lore

  • Penguin Software e.g. Xyphus, Thunder Bombs

  • Phoenix Software e.g. Sherwood Forest, Masquerade

  • Polarware e.g. Oo-topos, The Crimson Crown

  • Professional Software e.g. Trivia Fever

  • Softape e.g. Photar

  • Sierra On-Line (patcher by qkumba) e.g. BC's Quest for Tires, Sammy Lightfoot

  • Strategic Simulations e.g. The Eternal Dagger, The Shard of Spring, Roadwar Europa, Warship

  • Trillium e.g. Rendezvous with Rama, Fahrenheit 451

  • TSR e.g. Dawn Patrol, Dungeon

  • Voyager Software e.g. Starship Commander


Passport is open source and is distributed under the MIT license.

Passport Copyright (c) 2016-2023 by 4am

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.




  • NEW: patchers/t00_jmp600.a (fixes Wizard of Words, Alphabet Zoo, Broadsides)
  • NEW: patchers/e7everywhere.encrypted.a (fixes Language Carnival 1 & 2)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/t00_earthware.a (fixes Black Belt rev. 2)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/d5d5f7.a (fixes Picture Perfect 1987)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/t00_rps.a (fixes Evelyn Dynamic Reader)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/advint.a (fixes War, Questprobe/Spider-Man)


  • NEW: patchers/didatech.a (fixes Crosscountry USA, Crosscountry Canada, Crosscountry California)
  • NEW: patchers/microlearn.a (fixes US Constitution Tutor, SAT English 1)
  • NEW: patchers/probs5.a (fixes Decimals Analyzer, Whole Numbers Analyzer)
  • NEW: patchers/t00_neosoft.a (fixes Comparison Kitchen, Animal Photo Fun)
  • NEW: patchers/t00_scottforesman.a (fixes Addition and Subtraction 4, Decimals 3, Dinosaurs and Squids)
  • NEW: patchers/t00_scottforesman_ dos33.a (fixes Addition and Subtraction 3, Decimals 2)
  • NEW: unexpected 5&3 track detection (fixes Real Math, Mathosaurus)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/d5d5f7.a (fixes Les Sports)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/gamco.a (fixes Percent)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/sierra.a (fixes secondary anti-tamper check in The General Manager)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/sigcheck.a (fixes Water Pollution)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/t00_rwtslog.a (ATILA variant of LSR $6A detection fixes The Treasure of Forest Isle, TAY/BIT detection fixes Rapid Reader and E-Z Learner)
  • Matching updates to the Passport test suite


  • NEW: patchers/mak.a (fixes "Kittens, Kids, and a Frog")
  • NEW: patchers/t00_baudville.a (fixes Blazing Paddles, Take 1)
  • NEW: patchers/t00_sigcheck.a (fixes Hardball, Law of the West)
  • NEW: patchers/pfs.pascal.a (fixes pfs:* Pascal titles)
  • NEW: patchers/pfs.prodos.a (fixes pfs:* ProDOS titles)
  • NEW: patchers/enlightenment.a (fixes Paul Whitehead Teaches Chess)
  • IMPROVED: id/555.a (fixes Fax, Funbunch College Prep)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/ea.a (fixes Boulder Dash II) (by qkumba)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/holle.a (fixes Sherwood Forest)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/jmpbb03.a (fixes Pacific 231)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/jmpb400.a (fixes Rebus Writer, Writer's Helper)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/jmpb4bb.a (fixes Half Time)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/sierra.a (fixes Ultima II)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/sigcheck.a (fixes Inca, Holy Grail)
  • IMPROVED: RW18 sector verification (fixes Toy Shop)
  • Detect extra wide tracks anywhere, not just on track 6
  • Matching updates to the Passport test suite


  • IMPROVED: patchers/universale7.a cracks now work on //c and IIgs (fixes Commando, Animate, &c.)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/ea.a (fixes Mind Mirror) (by qkumba)
  • Autonumbered .DSK files now go to 11
  • Matching updates to the Passport test suite


  • Target can be a hard disk, which will save an autonumbered .DSK file in PASSPORT subdirectory (by qkumba)
  • If the log scrolls off the screen, you can scroll back with arrows (by qkumba)
  • NEW: patchers/555.a (Agent USA, Jumpman, many Softsmith) (by qkumba)
  • NEW: patchers/earthware.a (Black Belt, Zoo Master)
  • NEW: patchers/tsr.a (Dawn Patrol, Dungeon, Theseus and the Minotaur)
  • NEW: patchers/datasoft2.a (Canyon Climber, Fathom's 40)
  • NEW: patchers/jmpb500.a (Starship Commander)
  • NEW: patchers/woodbury.a (PlayWriter)
  • NEW: patchers/meccdqc.a (MECC DataQuest Composer)
  • NEW: patchers/b4bbbasic.a (SocMate Analogies Games)
  • NEW: patchers/jsrb6cc.a (Kidwriter)
  • NEW: patchers/mastery.a (Mastery Arithmetic Games)
  • NEW: patchers/leisure.a (Clue, RISK)
  • NEW: patchers/errord51.a (Granny Applebee's Cookie Factory, Uncle Clyde's Consonant Slides)
  • NEW: patchers/sigcheck.a (Advanced Electricity, Complex Circuits)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/mecc.a to erase site license information from final generation of MECC disks (by qkumba)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/rwtsswapmecc.a (fixes Zoyon Patrol, Word Wizards)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/prodosmecc.a (fixes Miner's Cave)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/rwtslog.a (fixes La Guillotine, GATO v1.3)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/ssi.a (fixes Sixgun Shootout)
  • IMPROVED: id/d5d5f7.a (fixes Trivia Fever)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/jmpbbfe.a (fixes The Desecration, Depreciation Log)
  • "BB00 protection" renamed to its marketing name "Lock-It-Up"
  • Serial numbers will be erased while cracking Lock-It-Up disks, if present
  • Update Passport disk to ProDOS 2.4.2
  • Matching updates to the Passport test suite


  • NEW: patchers/harvey.a (Buzz Bang Harvey, Harvey by Primes)
  • NEW: patchers/jmp2012.a (BackAid)
  • NEW: patchers/pdi.a (Leadsheeter, Polywriter)
  • NEW: patchers/rps.a (Pac-Man Thunder Mountain release, Problem Solving in Algebra)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/ssprot.a (fixes Metric System Tutor)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/bb03.a (fixes Spanish for Mastery)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/sierra.a (fixes Mission Asteroid)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/ea.a (fixes One on One)
  • Passport will now quit gracefully if you manage to launch it with less than 64K
  • Matching updates to the Passport test suite


  • NEW: verify pure 13-sector disks (by qkumba)
  • NEW: verify Infocom 18-sector disks (by qkumba)
  • NEW: patchers/artsci.a (AceCalc, Magicalc, Photar)
  • NEW: patchers/choplifter.a (Russki Duck, Choplifter) (by qkumba)
  • NEW: patchers/dakin5.a (Neutrons, MIRV, Rings of Saturn)
  • NEW: patchers/e7everywhere.a (Curious George series, Garfield Trivia Game)
  • NEW: patchers/hallabs.a (Sheila, Super Taxman II)
  • NEW: patchers/hoffman.a (Good Thinking! series)
  • NEW: patchers/holle.a (Crime Wave, Sherwood Forest)
  • NEW: patchers/muserwts.a (Caverns of Freitag, The Function Game)
  • NEW: patchers/springboard.a (The Newsroom, The Chalice of Mostania)
  • NEW: patchers/zoomgrafix.a (Zoom Grafix - all versions)
  • IMPROVED: id/trace33p.a (fixes Kaves of Karkhan)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/diskvol.a (fixes Diet Analysis Program)
  • test suite


  • NEW: 13-sector MUSE support
  • NEW: 13-sector Sierra support (by qkumba)
  • NEW: 13-sector RDOS support (SSI) (by qkumba)
  • NEW: PanglosDOS (per-file encryption) (by qkumba)
  • NEW: Dinkey-DOS support (Ultima V)
  • NEW: Interplay support (The Tracer Sanction, Borrowed Time)
  • NEW: Davidson & Associates support (Math Blaster Plus)
  • NEW: Penguin RWTS (Xyphus)
  • NEW: MicroFun RWTS (Crown of Arthain)
  • NEW: Swordthrust RWTS
  • NEW: patchers/f7f6.a (Might & Magic)
  • NEW: patchers/trillium (Rendezvous with Rama, Fahrenheit 451)
  • NEW: patchers/fbffencrypted.a (Clue, RISK, ESL Writer)
  • NEW: patchers/fbffpascal.a (Widespread, The Typewriter)
  • NEW: patchers/polarware.a (Oo-topos, The Crimson Crown)
  • NEW: patchers/microfun.a (The Heist, Station 5, Miner 2049er)
  • NEW: print volume name on ProDOS, Pascal, and DOS 3.3 + variants
  • IMPROVED: patchers/jmpb4bb.a (fixes Rubik's Cube Unlocked)
  • IMPROVED: id/advint.a (fixes The Curse of Crowley Manor)
  • IMPROVED: detection of unformatted tracks (fixes Thunder Bombs)
  • IMPROVED: Micrograms detection (fixes Shapes and Patterns)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/bbf9.a (fixes Magic Slate II 20-column)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/memory.config.a (fixes Where Did My Toothbrush Go)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/c9ff.a (fixes Swiss Family Robinson)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/bb03.a (fixes Alice in Wonderland)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/optimum.a (fixes Fat City)
  • IMPROVED: logging track and sector when switching to built-in RWTS


  • Supports ProDOS RAM disks to read an entire disk at once (IIgs RAM disk, RAMFactor, RAMWorks, modern clones)
  • NEW: DOS 3.2 support (MUSE, Edu-Ware, Hartley, Krell, Hayden, DLM)
  • NEW: patchers/advint.a, an encrypted nibble check (Scott Adams adventures)
  • NEW: patchers/bbf9.a, a desync bitstream (late Sunburst disks)
  • NEW: patchers/jmpb400.a, a self- decrypting nibble check in late boot (Mindscape, DLM, Thunder Mountain)
  • NEW: patchers/memory.config.a, ProDOS startup program with nibble check (DC Heath, Marshware)
  • NEW: patchers/pascalrwts.a (Learning Multi-Systems)
  • NEW: patchers/sra.a (SRA)
  • NEW: patchers/rwtslog.a, refactored and expanded log of RWTS variants
  • NEW: id/micrograms.a (Micrograms)
  • NEW: id/rdos.a (SSI)
  • NEW: support for early Infocom disks
  • IMPROVED: patchers/a6bc95.a (fixes Friendly Filer)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/jmpbeb1.a (fixes Spelling Rules)
  • IMPROVED: patchers/sierra.a (fixes Winnie The Pooh)
  • IMPROVED: id/laureate.a (fixes Sound Ideas)


  • NEW: patcher for Activision (by TRex)
  • NEW: patcher for Electronic Arts (by qkumba)
  • NEW: patcher for Sierra On-Line (by qkumba, replaces old patcher)
  • NEW: patcher for Optimum Resource (by qkumba, replaces old patcher)
  • NEW: patcher for Gamco Software
  • NEW: patcher for Border Software
  • NEW: patcher for Blue Chip Software
  • NEW: patcher for Houghton-Mifflin
  • NEW: patcher for Milliken Publishing
  • NEW: patcher for Methods & Solutions
  • NEW: patcher for Laureate Learning
  • NEW: detection of LSR $6A ProDOS RWTS
  • NEW: identification of Pronto-DOS, Diversi-DOS, David DOS, and Quick-DOS
  • IMPROVED: patcher for MECC (fixes Word Munchers v1.1)
  • IMPROVED: patcher for Scholastic (fixes Bank Street Writer II)
  • IMPROVED: patcher for Grolier (fixes Countries of the World)
  • migrated build to ACME assembler and source code to GitHub (by qkumba)


  • add support for DOS 3.3P e.g. Ernie's Quiz, Instant Zoo
  • improve support for disks created with MECC Database
  • faster detection of 4-and-4 encoding and 5-and-3 encoding (neither is supported)
  • various speed improvements


  • add support for Protected.DOS e.g. Moebius, Math Blaster
  • add support for "JMP $B660" RWTS e.g. Verb Viper, Master Match
  • add support for Datasoft encrypted bootloader e.g. Tomahawk, Video Title Shop
  • fix bug in boot sector detection that erroneously claimed some disks were unreadable
  • add informational messages about some RWTS variants (LSR $6A, BCS $08)
  • refactor code in /id/ directory


  • initial release