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Reword the manual.

This commit is contained in:
Piotr Fusik 2021-06-21 22:44:34 +02:00
parent 1a90ca04d3
commit 8c7ef1a922

View File

@ -24,31 +24,30 @@ OPTIONS
-------
*-c*::
Specifies that lines skipped due to a false condition
should be included in the listing file.
The listing should include conditionally skipped lines.
[[new_deflabel]]*-d* 'LABEL'='VALUE'::
Defines a label.
'LABEL' should be a valid label name.
'VALUE' may be any expression (may reference to labels defined in source files).
You may use several *-d* options to define many labels from the command line.
'VALUE' may be any expression (potentially referencing labels defined in source files).
You may use several *-d* options to define many labels on the command line.
*-i*::
Excludes included files from the listing file.
The listing file should exclude included files.
*-l* '[LISTING_FILE]'::
Generates listing file.
Generates a listing file.
If 'LISTING_FILE' is omitted, the listing filename
is 'SOURCE_FILE' with the extension changed to `.lst`.
[[new_makefile]]*-M*::
Prints a rule for use in a `Makefile`.
Prints a `Makefile` rule.
First line of the rule lists 'OBJECT_FILE' as the target of the rule
and all source files (including the ones specified with `icl` and `ins` directives)
as dependencies. The second line contains the command line with `OBJECT_FILE`
replaced by the *make* macro `$@` and `SOURCE_FILE` replaced by the macro `$<`.
and all source files (including the ones specified with `icl` and `ins`) as dependencies.
The second line contains the command line with 'OBJECT_FILE'
replaced by the *make* macro `$@` and 'SOURCE_FILE' replaced by the macro `$<`.
Dollars in the command line are doubled.
Your `make` or shell may require further escaping.
Your *make* or shell may require further escaping.
*-o* 'OBJECT_FILE'::
Sets output file name.
@ -60,12 +59,12 @@ Prints absolute paths in listing and error messages.
[[new_quiet]]*-q*::
Quiet mode. Prevents *xasm* from printing its banner and compilation summary.
*-t*' [LABEL_FILE]'::
Generates label table.
*-t* '[LABEL_FILE]'::
Generates a label table.
If 'LABEL_FILE' is omitted then the table is appended at the end of the listing.
[[new_unlabels]]*-u*::
Issues a warning message for each label whose value is unused.
Issues warnings for unreferenced labels.
Alternatively, you may use DOS-style options, for example:
@ -73,7 +72,7 @@ Alternatively, you may use DOS-style options, for example:
xasm /i /d:DEBUG=1 /l:listing.lst source.asx
-----------------------------------------------------------
These are however deprecated because they are incompatible with MSYS.
These are deprecated because they are incompatible with https://www.msys2.org[MSYS2].
SYNTAX
------
@ -83,22 +82,22 @@ LF, CR, CR/LF and Atari ($9b) line terminators are supported.
Labels and instructions are case-insensitive.
*xasm* is backward compatible with Quick Assembler.
To compile QA sources with *xasm*, simply replace ATASCII-specific characters
with their integer codes. You also have to update all `OPT` directives,
but usually you can simply remove them.
To compile QA sources with *xasm*, simply replace ATASCII characters
in string literals with the corresponding integers.
Also update all `OPT` directives, but often you can omit them.
'Label' is a symbol that represents a signed 32-bit integer.
A 'label' is a symbol that represents a signed 32-bit integer.
You define a label by putting its name at the beginning of a line
(with no spaces before).
The label will be assigned the current value of the 'origin counter'
(i.e. the address of the compiled instruction),
unless you use it with the `EQU` directive where it is assigned
the value of the `EQU` argument.
(that is, the address of the compiled instruction),
unless you use it with the `EQU` directive to assign the specified value.
Any label name starting with `?` (question mark) refers to a 'local label'.
[[new_locallabel]]
Any label name starting with a `?` (question mark) is a 'local label'.
It is implicitly prefixed with the name of the most recently defined
'global label' (i.e. a label without any `?` in name),
and stays visible until another global label is defined.
'global label' (that is, a label without any `?` in name),
and remains visible until another global label is defined.
It is still possible to access a local label from anywhere in the source
by specifying its full name.
Local labels provide a way to reuse common, short label names while keeping
@ -117,7 +116,7 @@ bar lda baz
bne ?loop ; ERROR: Undeclared label: BAR?LOOP
----
Instructions and directives must be preceded with some whitespace.
'Instructions' and 'directives' must be preceded with some whitespace.
Without leading whitespace they are treated as label names.
For example:
----
@ -130,7 +129,7 @@ nop
(without leading space) defines a label called `nop`.
Whole-line comments must start with a semicolon, an asterisk or a pipe,
with optional label definition and spaces before.
with an optional label definition and spaces before.
Here are examples of whole-line comments:
--------------------
; this is a comment
@ -144,12 +143,12 @@ To assemble a single line several times,
precede the repeat count with a colon, for example:
-----------------
:4 asl @
mask_lookup :32 dta $80,$40,$20,$10,8,4,2,1
mask_lookup :32 dta $80,$40,$20,$10,$08,$04,$02,$01
-----------------
In lines with instructions or directives, a comment starts immediately
after the instruction/directive has been successfully parsed.
That is, in such lines *xasm* does not require a special character
That is, in such lines *xasm* does 'not' require any special character
to start a comment.
-------------------------------------------------------------
lda foo ; this is a comment
@ -183,14 +182,14 @@ for 6502 indirect addressing.
A number is:
- a 32-bit decimal integer, e.g. `-12345`
- a 32-bit decimal integer, e.g. `12345`
- a 32-bit hexadecimal integer, e.g. `$abcd`
- a 32-bit binary integer, e.g. `%10100101`
- an ASCII character, e.g. `'a'` or `"a"`
- origin counter: `*`
- the current value of the origin counter: `*`
- a hardware register (see below), e.g. `^4e`
- [[new_opcode]]an opcode (see below), e.g. `{lda #0}` is `$a9`
- [[new_linecnt]]the line repeat counter (see below): `#`
- [[new_linecnt]]the current value of the line repeat counter (see below): `#`
Abbreviations of Atari hardware registers are provided
to save two characters (`$d40e` vs `^4e`)
@ -258,7 +257,8 @@ The following 'unary operators' are supported:
- `<` Low (extracts the low byte)
- `>` High (extracts the high byte)
The operator precedence is following:
Although the operators are similar to those used in C, C++, C# and Java,
their precedence is different:
- first: `[]` (brackets)
- `+ - ~ < >` (unary)
@ -269,19 +269,16 @@ The operator precedence is following:
- `&&` (binary)
- last: `||` (binary)
NOTE: Although the operators are similar to those used in C, C++ and Java,
their priorities are different.
Compare and logical operators assume that zero is false and a non-zero
is true. They return 1 for true.
The compare and logical operators assume that zero is false
and a non-zero is true. They return 1 for true.
Expressions are calculated in signed 32-bit arithmetic.
"Arithmetic overflow" error signals overflow of the 32-bit range.
An overflow is signalled with an "Arithmetic overflow" error.
DIRECTIVES
----------
*EQU* - assign value of expression to label::
*EQU* - assign the value of an expression to a label::
Examples:
+
@ -294,16 +291,16 @@ here equ *
Six options are available:
- `F` - fill the space between memory areas with `$FF`
- `G` - Atari 5200 mode for hardware register abbreviations
- `F` - fill the space between noncontiguous memory areas with `$FF` bytes
- `G` - Atari 5200 mode for hardware register abbreviations (`^xx`)
- `H` - generate Atari executable headers
- `L` - write to the listing
- `O` - write to the object file
- `L` - write the listing
- `O` - write the object file
- `U` - warn of unused labels
+
You can turn any of these on or off.
The default (if no `OPT` specified) is `opt f-g-h+l+o+u+`.
The default (before the first `OPT`) is `opt f-g-h+l+o+u+`.
For compatibility with MADS, `opt ?+` is accepted and ignored.
Examples:
+
@ -314,13 +311,13 @@ Examples:
opt ?+ MADS compatibility, no effect
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*ORG* - change value of the origin counter::
*ORG* - set the origin counter::
If Atari executable headers are enabled, you can include an operand prefix:
If Atari executable headers are enabled (`opt h+`), you can include an operand prefix:
- `a:` starts a new block even if it's superfluous
because the new address equals the current address.
- `f:` is same as `a:`, but additionally generates a double-`$FF` prefix
- `f:` is same as `a:`, but additionally generates a double `$FF` prefix
before the new header. This prefix is automatically generated
at the beginning of the file (no need to include `f:` in the first `ORG`).
@ -337,10 +334,10 @@ In the latter example `table` points to 100 bytes
of uninitialized data (label is assigned with `*`
before the `ORG` directive is executed).
+
[[new_orgr]]Starting with version 2.6.0, *xasm* supports code
that is relocated at run time. Let's say you want your code
to be located on page zero. You can't normally load it directly into this
place, so you load it at a different address and then move in your program.
[[new_orgr]]*xasm* supports code that is relocated at run time.
Let's say you want your code to be located on page zero for best performance.
You can't safely load it directly into this place,
so you load it at a different address and then move in your program.
`org r:` changes the address that it used for code generation
but not the address used for generating Atari executable headers.
Example:
@ -434,18 +431,18 @@ Examples:
icl 'lib/fileio'
-----------------
+
NOTE: for portability, use only relative paths and slash as the separator.
This way your sources will compile under Windows and Linux.
NOTE: For Windows/macOS/Linux portability use relative paths
and slashes as path separators.
*END* - end assembling file::
*END* - end this source file::
May be used if the source file ends with something which shouldn't
be read by *xasm* (e.g. your notes).
*INS* - insert contents of file::
*INS* - insert binary file contents::
Copies every byte of the specified file into the object file and updates
the origin counter, as if these bytes were written using `DTA`.
the origin counter, as if these bytes were specified in a `DTA`.
You may specify a range of the file to insert. The syntax is:
+
-----------------------------
@ -458,11 +455,11 @@ Examples:
+
-----------------------------------------------
ins 'picture.raw'
ins 'file',-256 insert last 256 bytes of file
ins 'file',10,10 insert bytes 10..19 of file
ins 'file',-256 ; insert last 256 bytes of file
ins 'file',10,10 ; insert bytes 10..19 of file
-----------------------------------------------
*RUN* - set run address in the Atari executable format::
*RUN* - set the Atari executable run address::
+
---------
@ -476,7 +473,7 @@ is equivalent to:
dta a(main)
------------
*INI* - set init address in the Atari executable format::
*INI* - set the Atari executable init address::
Example:
+
@ -484,7 +481,7 @@ Example:
ini showloadingpic
------------
*ERT* - generate error if expression evaluates to true::
*ERT* - abort the assembly with an error if an expression is true::
Examples:
+
@ -516,7 +513,7 @@ widescr equ 1
sta $22f
-------------
+
NOTE: The above example may be rewritten using the 'repeat line' feature:
NOTE: Alternatively, the above example can be written using the 'repeat line' feature:
+
--------------------------
noscr equ 1
@ -529,7 +526,7 @@ widescr equ 1
PSEUDO COMMANDS
---------------
'Pseudo commands' are built-in macros. There are no user-defined macros in *xasm*.
'Pseudo commands' are built-in macros. There are 'no' user-defined macros in *xasm*.
*ADD* - add without carry::
@ -540,7 +537,7 @@ to use a `CLC` before `ADC` for every simple addition.
*SUB* - subtract::
It is `SEC` and `SBC`.
It is `SEC` followed by `SBC`.
[[new_repskip]]*RCC, RCS, REQ, RMI, RNE, RPL, RVC, RVS* - conditional repeat::
@ -558,11 +555,11 @@ The above code copies a 256-byte memory block from $500 to $600.
Here is the same written with standard 6502 commands only:
+
--------------------
ldx #0
ldx #0
copy_loop lda $500,x
sta $600,x
inx
bne copy_loop
sta $600,x
inx
bne copy_loop
--------------------
*SCC, SCS, SEQ, SMI, SNE, SPL, SVC, SVS* - conditional skip::
@ -583,7 +580,7 @@ In the above example the 16-bit variable `ptr` is incremented by 40.
*JCC, JCS, JEQ, JMI, JNE, JPL, JVC, JVS* - conditional jump::
These are long branches. While standard branches (such as `BNE`)
have range of -128..+127, these jumps have range of 64 kB.
have range of -128..+127 bytes, these jumps have range of 64 KB.
For example:
+
---------
@ -612,7 +609,7 @@ is equivalent to:
sne:inc dest+1
---------------
*MVA, MVX, MVY* - move byte using accumulator, X or Y::
*MVA, MVX, MVY* - move a byte using the accumulator, X or Y::
Each of these pseudo commands requires two operands
and substitutes two commands:
@ -651,7 +648,7 @@ When `<immed` equals `>immed` and `immed` is not forward-referenced,
sta dest+1
----------------
+
If possible, `MWX` and `MWY` use increment/decrement commands.
If possible, `MWX` and `MWY` use increment/decrement instructions.
For example, `mwx #1 dest` expands to:
+
-----------
@ -664,11 +661,11 @@ For example, `mwx #1 dest` expands to:
ADDRESSING MODES
----------------
All addressing modes are entered in the standard 6502 convention
except for the accumulator addressing mode,
which should be marked with the `@` character (as in Quick Assembler).
Addressing modes are entered in the standard 6502 convention.
An exception is the accumulator mode marked with the `@` character
for compatibility with Quick Assembler.
For Quick Assembler compatibility, there are two extra immediate
Also for Quick Assembler compatibility there are two extra immediate
addressing modes: `<` and `>`, which use the low/high byte of a 16-bit word constant.
Unlike in Quick Assembler, you can alternatively use
the more common syntax: `#<` and `#>`.
@ -725,7 +722,7 @@ Version 3.1.0 (2014-07-20)
- `INS` can be repeated (suggested by Marek Pavlik) and taken "opcode" of
- `OPT U-` disables <<new_unlabels,*/u*>> unused label warnings
(suggested by Marek Pavlik)
- if the file to be included cannot be opened, report error in the `ICL` line
- if the file to be included cannot be opened, report an error in the `ICL` line
(suggested by Peter Dell)
- removed duplicate filenames for <<new_makefile,*/M*>>
- implemented <<new_fullpaths,*/p*>> outside Windows
@ -738,7 +735,7 @@ Version 3.0.2 (2009-10-17)
for backward branches
- <<new_makefile,new command-line option */M* prints a Makefile rule>>
- command-line options are now case-insensitive
- on Windows error messages are printed in red, warnings in yellow
- on Windows, error messages are printed in red, warnings in yellow
Version 3.0.1 (2007-04-22)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@ -751,9 +748,9 @@ Version 3.0.0 (2005-05-22)
- rewritten from the x86 assembly language to the
http://dlang.org/[D programming language] - Linux version
is now available and DOS is no longer supported
- no limits for line length, number of `ICLs`, `ORGs`,`IFTs` and labels
- no limits on line length, number of `ICLs`, `ORGs`,`IFTs` and labels
- Unix-style command-line options are supported
- */e* option is no longer supported
- the */e* option is removed
- the label table is now sorted alphabetically
Version 2.6.1 (2005-05-21)
@ -782,8 +779,7 @@ Version 2.6.0 (2005-02-07)
- <<new_linecnt,line repeat counter>>
- label values are now 32-bit, not just 17-bit
- command-line options */n* and */s* are no longer supported
- fatal I/O errors (such as floppy not ready) no longer print the annoying
"Abort, Retry, Ignore" message
- fatal I/O errors no longer print the annoying "Abort, Retry, Ignore" message
Version 2.5.2 (2002-10-03)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@ -798,7 +794,7 @@ Version 2.5.1 (2002-08-21)
Version 2.5 (2002-07-08)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
- fixed another bug, very similar to the previous one, e.g.
- fixed another bug similar to the previous one, for example:
+
----------
ift 0
@ -830,14 +826,13 @@ Version 2.4 (2002-05-22)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
- fixed incorrect unary operator precedence
- fixed wrong label value after a skip pseudo command
- the assembler is .EXE (.COM caused problems with DJGPP *make* due
- the assembler is an .EXE (.COM caused problems with DJGPP *make* due
to a bug in the DJGPP runtime)
- the assembler executable is not compressed (so it occupies less space in the ZIP)
- improved command-line parsing: options may be used before source file name,
tab character is a valid separator, slash may be used as a directory separator
- the assembler executable is no longer compressed
- improved command-line parsing: options may be used before the source file name,
tab is a valid separator, slash may be used as a directory separator
- error and warning messages are written to stderr, not stdout
- added `==` (equals) operator, which is equivalent to `=`,
but more natural for C/C++/Java programmers
- added `==` (equals) operator, equivalent to `=`, but familiar to C/C++/Java programmers
- <<new_deflabel,added `/d:label=value` option: define a label>>
- <<new_fullpaths,added `/p` option: print full paths
in listing and error messages>>
@ -865,11 +860,11 @@ Version 2.2 (1999-09-10)
- fixed `ICL` in last line
- fixed `OPT H-H+`
- fixed first `ORG *`
- no need to set origin counter until it's used
- no need to set the origin counter until it's needed
- allow Unix, Macintosh and Atari EOLs
- value of 'true' changed to 1
- command-line option to set environment variables on error
- commane-line option to assemble only if source is newer than object file
- commane-line option to assemble only if the source is newer than the object file
- <<new_opcode,opcode extracting>>
- <<new_linerep,repeat line>>
- <<new_pairing,two instructions in line>>
@ -878,7 +873,7 @@ Version 2.2 (1999-09-10)
Version 2.0 (1998-11-12)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
- fixed: name of object file was truncated
- fixed: object filename was truncated
- fixed forward references in `EQU` and `DTA`
- fixed hex numbers
- `.OBX` is now the default extension for the object file