Apple 1 Replica Project
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44-Pin Connector
2022-11-28 15:05:13 +01:00
Documentation Added the A-1 Operation Manual. 2013-11-03 16:23:59 +01:00
Schematics Updated board drawing... 2013-11-03 23:51:17 +01:00 44-Pin Connector 2022-11-28 15:05:13 +01:00 README 2017-01-11 08:21:46 +01:00

XS Computer One - Apple 1 Replica Project

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This project is an attempt to build a working replica of the Apple-1 computer, made in 1976 by Steve Wozniak and released by Apple Computer Company, now Apple, Inc.

Only about 200 units of this computer were made. Today, only about 60 units still exists, and less than 10 are known working.
They are sometimes sold at auctions, for record prices. In 2012, one was sold for $671,000.

To my knowledge, three replica projects exists:
Replica-1 by Vince Briel, Mimeo-1 by Mike Willegal, and Obtronix by Steve Gabaly.

The last two are exact replicas, while the first one uses actual components with a different motherboard layout.

So this project will be (hopefully) a fourth one.

I decided to build my own replica from scratch, including the PCB design, as it's a very nice occasion to learn about electronics.
As a programmer, I sometimes feel frustrated not to know more about this... ; )


There's of course no real roadmap yet, as I'm currently learning as I go. The project will surely takes a huge amount of time, so don't expect results too soon.

Here are the actual project parts:

# Part Status Description
1 Learn In progress Learn as much as possible on electronics, as I'm completely new to this.
2 Test Experiment with a few basic PCB and components.
3 Component Identification Done Get the original component specification from the original schematics and documentation.
4 Component Purchase In progress Purchase components or find alternatives if they are not available anymore.
5 ROM Find a way to get the original ROM and have it built somehow.
6 Prototype Get a prototype working on a breadboard.
7 PCB Design Design the final PCB, as close as possible to the original Apple-1, and have it printed.
8 Mounting Mount all components on the motherboard.

Tools & Equipment

Here are the tools I'll use for this project:

Manufacturer Part No. Details Alternative Quantity Found Status
B&K Precision DP 21 Logic Probe / 20 MHz - 30 Ns N/A 1 Yes -
Fluke 87-V True RMS Digital Multimeter N/A 1 Yes -
Global Specialties PB-105T Breadboard N/A 1 Yes -
Power Bright VC500W 120 V / 220 V Voltage Transformer N/A 1 No -
Weller WECP-20 Soldering Station N/A 1 No -
Weller 7881 Desolder Pump N/A 1 Yes -
Kester 24-6040-0027 Solder / 60/40 - 0.79 mm N/A 1 Yes -
ArcOne G-FLY-A1101 Safety Goggles N/A 1 Yes -
CadSoft EAGLE PCB Design Software N/A 1 Yes -

Note: Any equivalent tool may be used.


I'm using the original schematics and original Apple-1 photos in order to identify the components and build the PCB.
The original Apple-1 Operation Manual is included in the repository.

Bill Of Materials

The complete list of the Apple-1 components can be found in the file.

When the components are still available for purchase, links are provided (Mouser Electronics).
For vintage components, valid alternatives may be provided. In such a case, I try to find components that look the same as the original.

Unfortunately, I haven't been able to find alternative for all components, so your best option to find those parts is on sites like eBay. Note that rare/vintage components can be expensive.


Here's a schematic of motherboard layout, with all components.
Note that the components' size is not respected, and their position is not always totally correct, but it's still better than looking at original pictures for quick component identification:

![]( Board.png)

Repository Infos

Owner:			Jean-David Gadina - XS-Labs
Twitter:		@macmade